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漢口舊領事館

頒布發表時候:2018-11-19 11:06 來歷:亞博網頁(ye)登陸 閱(yue)讀量:9519

  漢(han)口地輿位置優勝,素(su)有(you)“九省亨衢”之稱,明清(qing)時期,因為(wei)商(shang)業茂盛成為(wei)我國(guo)(guo)四臺(tai)甫鎮。清(qing)朝,漢(han)口船埠(bu)加倍忙碌(liu),貨色離合(he)自(zi)若(ruo),在(zai)雅片(pian)(pian)戰(zhan)斗前就已經是長(chang)江(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)流域(yu)的貨色集散中(zhong)間和主要的商(shang)業港口。1858年,第二次雅片(pian)(pian)戰(zhan)斗克(ke)服,清(qing)當局自(zi)愿(yuan)與列國(guo)(guo)簽定《天津公約》,許可本國(guo)(guo)商(shang)船駛入長(chang)江(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)各互市(shi)(shi)港口;本國(guo)(guo)可在(zai)互市(shi)(shi)港口設置領(ling)事館(guan);本國(guo)(guo)人可在(zai)邊疆游歷(li)、做(zuo)生意。1861年中(zhong)英兩國(guo)(guo)簽定《漢(han)口租界條目(mu)》,同年4月27日,上海英領(ling)事署雙方面(mian)發布《長(chang)江(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)各口互市(shi)(shi)暫行(xing)章程》,頒(ban)布發表“漢(han)口、九江(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)辟為(wei)商(shang)埠(bu),設置領(ling)事”,漢(han)口正(zheng)式(shi)開埠(bu)互市(shi)(shi)。

  漢(han)(han)口開(kai)埠后,法、俄(e)、美等國(guo)(guo)也逼迫請求享用中(zhong)英《天津公約》劃一的(de)(de)最惠國(guo)(guo)報酬(chou)來(lai)漢(han)(han)互(hu)市(shi),漢(han)(han)口商(shang)業(ye)茂盛,收支口商(shang)業(ye)一日(ri)千里。開(kai)埠初期(qi),美俄(e)等國(guo)(guo)不(bu)(bu)設(she)置領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館,其來(lai)漢(han)(han)商(shang)業(ye)的(de)(de)貨船(chuan)(chuan),能夠隨便裝載貨色,不(bu)(bu)機構遏制操(cao)持(chi)。為增強(qiang)交往船(chuan)(chuan)只和商(shang)貿(mao)職員操(cao)持(chi),標準商(shang)業(ye),湖廣總(zong)督官(guan)(guan)文(wen)遂致函總(zong)理列(lie)國(guo)(guo)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)件衙門,請定則程(cheng),章(zhang)程(cheng)明文(wen)規定:“本國(guo)(guo)商(shang)船(chuan)(chuan)收支互(hu)市(shi)港(gang)口,必須設(she)領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)官(guan)(guan)操(cao)持(chi),方準商(shang)業(ye)。如無領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)官(guan)(guan),允委他國(guo)(guo)領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)官(guan)(guan)代(dai)(dai)庖署理。領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)官(guan)(guan)系正式(shi)官(guan)(guan)員,不(bu)(bu)得以販子湊數。不(bu)(bu)然,嚴禁商(shang)業(ye),人身(shen)寧靜,處所(suo)官(guan)(guan)概不(bu)(bu)擔任。”清廷將此章(zhang)程(cheng)照(zhao)會各互(hu)市(shi)國(guo)(guo),各互(hu)市(shi)國(guo)(guo)紛紜前(qian)后設(she)領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)或(huo)代(dai)(dai)庖署理領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)。民國(guo)(guo)時期(qi),漢(han)(han)口設(she)總(zong)領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館的(de)(de)有(you)英、美、俄(e)、法、日(ri)、德、意大利、比利時8國(guo)(guo);設(she)領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館或(huo)領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館營業(ye)的(de)(de)有(you)葡萄牙(ya)、丹(dan)麥、荷蘭、瑞(rui)典等12國(guo)(guo),共有(you)20國(guo)(guo)總(zong)領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)及(ji)領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(代(dai)(dai)庖)駐漢(han)(han)口。

 

漢口第一個本國領事館

  1861年3月,英國水(shui)兵中將、駐(zhu)華(hua)艦(jian)隊司令賀布(bu)(Adrmiral James Hopu)與駐(zhu)華(hua)公使館(guan)參贊巴夏禮(Hary Smith Parkes)率(lv)兵艦(jian)從上(shang)海溯(su)長(chang)江(jiang)達到(dao)漢(han)口(kou)(kou),與清湖(hu)北處所當局簽定《漢(han)口(kou)(kou)租界條目》,斥地漢(han)口(kou)(kou)英租界,4月27日,英國雙方面發布(bu)“漢(han)口(kou)(kou)、九(jiu)江(jiang)辟(pi)為商埠,設置(zhi)(zhi)領(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)”。本(ben)月,英國駐(zhu)漢(han)口(kou)(kou)領(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)金執爾(W.R.Gingell)到(dao)漢(han),在(zai)英租界江(jiang)邊(bian)設置(zhi)(zhi)領(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)館(guan)。此為本(ben)國在(zai)漢(han)口(kou)(kou)設立(li)的第一個領(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)館(guan)。

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漢口英(ying)國領事(shi)館(H.B.M.即Her Britannic Majesty意為英(ying)女王(wang)陛下)

  英(ying)國(guo)(guo)(guo)駐(zhu)(zhu)漢領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)于(yu)1861年(nian)4月(yue)正式開(kai)館(guan)(guan),領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)內(nei)設有(you):“一位(wei)正領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)、一位(wei)副(fu)領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi),設有(you)第一助(zhu)理、第二(er)助(zhu)理、翻(fan)譯、助(zhu)理翻(fan)譯、大夫、中(zhong)文布告員、通事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)和浩繁的(de)(de)家(jia)丁,當局還在該港派駐(zhu)(zhu)了(le)兵艦”。從材料中(zhong)可(ke)知,英(ying)國(guo)(guo)(guo)駐(zhu)(zhu)漢領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)職責觸及與(yu)中(zhong)國(guo)(guo)(guo)方(fang)面(mian)嚴(yan)重事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)件的(de)(de)談判、對租(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)界(jie)內(nei)市(shi)政(zheng)操持、法(fa)令人(ren)(ren)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)等方(fang)面(mian)。按(an)照1861年(nian)簽定(ding)的(de)(de)《漢口租(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)界(jie)條目》內(nei)容(rong)規定(ding):“英(ying)租(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)界(jie)內(nei)若何分(fen)段并造公路,管辦此地(di)(di)統統事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)件,全歸(gui)英(ying)國(guo)(guo)(guo)駐(zhu)(zhu)扎湖北(bei)省(sheng)領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)官(guan)專管,隨時定(ding)則操持。每(mei)一年(nian)4月(yue)內(nei),由英(ying)國(guo)(guo)(guo)領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)官(guan)將以上地(di)(di)丁漕(cao)米(mi)價(jia)共銀92兩6錢7分(fen)兩厘1毫,清交漢陽縣如數查(cha)收(shou),方(fang)可(ke)永租(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)無異”。1891年(nian)英(ying)國(guo)(guo)(guo)駐(zhu)(zhu)漢領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)官(guan)會同英(ying)國(guo)(guo)(guo)工(gong)商(shang)界(jie)有(you)關人(ren)(ren)士擬定(ding)了(le)《英(ying)租(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)界(jie)捕房章程(cheng)》,包括了(le)租(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)界(jie)的(de)(de)地(di)(di)盤軌制、立法(fa)軌制及行政(zheng)軌制等方(fang)面(mian)的(de)(de)內(nei)容(rong)。該章程(cheng)規定(ding)英(ying)租(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)界(jie)內(nei)變(bian)賣地(di)(di)基的(de)(de)立約典質相干方(fang)須在規定(ding)時候(hou)內(nei)英(ying)租(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)界(jie)領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)府掛號。另外對租(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)界(jie)內(nei)“統統設置(zhi)”之(zhi)用度,每(mei)一年(nian)1月(yue)1往后,由領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)“召集征稅國(guo)(guo)(guo)民,于(yu)14日之(zhi)內(nei)開(kai)終年(nian)大會籌(chou)集”。領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)還能(neng)夠核準船(chuan)埠執照,后在租(zu)(zu)(zu)(zu)界(jie)內(nei)成立的(de)(de)英(ying)國(guo)(guo)(guo)工(gong)部局人(ren)(ren)選也須取(qu)得領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)的(de)(de)承認。

  原英(ying)(ying)國(guo)(guo)(guo)駐(zhu)(zhu)漢總領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)位于漢口天津(jin)路江邊,今僅剩天津(jin)路6號領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)官(guan)邸(di),作(zuo)為(wei)聞一(yi)(yi)(yi)多基(ji)金會用房。位置在明天津(jin)路與協(xie)作(zuo)路之間,西(xi)至洞(dong)庭街(jie)。領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)官(guan)邸(di)為(wei)磚木布局,共2層,是典型(xing)的(de)西(xi)式庭園室第(di)修建,底(di)層木地板下有(you)半(ban)園高空層,外墻拉毛點綴,紅瓦(wa)層面上(shang)有(you)氣屋(wu)。1881年后建有(you)領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)官(guan)邸(di)及辦公用4樓,共有(you)房間23間,領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)舍有(you)13間,加上(shang)周(zhou)圍花圃面積共16320平(ping)方(fang)米,1899年英(ying)(ying)國(guo)(guo)(guo)領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)曾(ceng)升格為(wei)總領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)。1941年因為(wei)承平(ping)洋戰(zhan)斗周(zhou)全迸發(fa),侵(qin)華日(ri)軍(jun)將英(ying)(ying)國(guo)(guo)(guo)駐(zhu)(zhu)漢總領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)和美(mei)國(guo)(guo)(guo)駐(zhu)(zhu)漢總領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)拘押(ya)并遣送出中(zhong)國(guo)(guo)(guo),同年12月(yue)英(ying)(ying)國(guo)(guo)(guo)駐(zhu)(zhu)漢領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)自愿(yuan)封(feng)(feng)閉(bi),直到1945年12月(yue)規復。二戰(zhan)時(shi)期,1944年12月(yue)領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)衡(heng)宇在美(mei)國(guo)(guo)(guo)飛機轟炸下炸毀(hui)一(yi)(yi)(yi)幢(chuang)炸壞(huai)一(yi)(yi)(yi)幢(chuang),后由英(ying)(ying)國(guo)(guo)(guo)領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)職員破費2.62億舊幣重建一(yi)(yi)(yi)幢(chuang),修整炸爛的(de)一(yi)(yi)(yi)幢(chuang)。新(xin)中(zhong)國(guo)(guo)(guo)成立后,中(zhong)國(guo)(guo)(guo)國(guo)(guo)(guo)民完全掙脫了列強的(de)逼迫(po)侮辱,駐(zhu)(zhu)漢本國(guo)(guo)(guo)領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)接踵閉(bi)館(guan)(guan),1951年4月(yue)30日(ri)英(ying)(ying)國(guo)(guo)(guo)駐(zhu)(zhu)漢領(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)頒布發(fa)表正式封(feng)(feng)閉(bi)。

 

護航“萬里茶道”的領事館

  俄(e)國(guo)(guo)販(fan)子是來湖(hu)北做生意最早的(de)(de)(de)本國(guo)(guo)人,漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)與俄(e)國(guo)(guo)的(de)(de)(de)茶(cha)葉商(shang)業汗青悠(you)長,他們早在(zai)(zai)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)開埠之前,就取得(de)了在(zai)(zai)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)等地采辦茶(cha)葉的(de)(de)(de)特(te)權,大批(pi)磚茶(cha)由漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)幾經周轉(zhuan)輸出俄(e)國(guo)(guo),與中國(guo)(guo)販(fan)子配(pei)合斥地了一(yi)條(tiao)聞(wen)名(ming)的(de)(de)(de)萬里茶(cha)道。1861年(nian)(nian)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)開埠后(hou),在(zai)(zai)此運(yun)營多(duo)年(nian)(nian)的(de)(de)(de)俄(e)國(guo)(guo)為了掩護俄(e)國(guo)(guo)茶(cha)商(shang)的(de)(de)(de)好處,同年(nian)(nian)7月,時任俄(e)國(guo)(guo)駐滬(hu)領事夏德爾(er)正(zheng)式兼任鎮江、九(jiu)江、漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)領事,在(zai)(zai)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)領事館(guan)設(she)立之前,先委(wei)任美國(guo)(guo)駐漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)領事代(dai)庖署(shu)理(li)俄(e)國(guo)(guo)在(zai)(zai)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)互市各(ge)項事件(jian)。1869年(nian)(nian),俄(e)國(guo)(guo)先在(zai)(zai)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)陽(yang)設(she)立了領事館(guan),便利(li)磚茶(cha)商(shang)業。1891年(nian)(nian),俄(e)國(guo)(guo)駐漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)領事請求(qiu)劃漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)陽(yang)梅子山(shan)一(yi)帶為租(zu)界未(wei)成功后(hou),俄(e)國(guo)(guo)將領事館(guan)遷至漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)。1896年(nian)(nian)6月12日(ri),俄(e)國(guo)(guo)總領事與湖(hu)北處所行(xing)政當局簽定(ding)了《漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)俄(e)租(zu)界地公約》,規(gui)定(ding)俄(e)租(zu)界規(gui)模,俄(e)國(guo)(guo)在(zai)(zai)租(zu)界內起(qi)頭扶植領事館(guan)館(guan)舍。

1904年建成的漢口俄國領事館.jpg

1904年建(jian)成的(de)漢口俄國(guo)領(ling)事館(guan)

  俄(e)(e)國(guo)領(ling)事(shi)館于1861年7月正式開放,1902年在漢(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)建成館舍(she)。俄(e)(e)國(guo)領(ling)事(shi)館的(de)第一(yi)個主要(yao)(yao)職責是增強(qiang)茶葉商業位(wei)置(zhi),掩護茶商好(hao)處,經由過(guo)程漢(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)將(jiang)福建、江西(xi)、湖南(nan)、安徽(hui)等地(di)的(de)茶葉,轉口(kou)(kou)運往圣(sheng)彼得(de)堡乃至(zhi)全部歐洲。第二個主要(yao)(yao)本能機能是,與(yu)中(zhong)國(guo)當局(ju)方面遏制嚴重事(shi)件的(de)談判,別離更多好(hao)處。1891年至(zhi)1896年,為追求在漢(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)設(she)立(li)租(zu)界(jie),俄(e)(e)國(guo)駐漢(han)(han)領(ling)事(shi)與(yu)清當局(ju)方面談判周旋(xuan)屢次,終究在漢(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)規(gui)定(ding)了面積(ji)414畝6分5厘的(de)俄(e)(e)租(zu)界(jie)。1897年12月9日,俄(e)(e)領(ling)事(shi)又(you)逼迫(po)清當局(ju)簽定(ding)了《漢(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)俄(e)(e)租(zu)界(jie)購地(di)公(gong)約》(又(you)稱《俄(e)(e)國(guo)漢(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)承(cheng)租(zu)江岸地(di)基公(gong)約》)共3條,將(jiang)座落江邊的(de)算(suan)計61.78畝四(si)段地(di)基及衡宇承(cheng)租(zu)給俄(e)(e)國(guo)。第三個主要(yao)(yao)本能機能是俄(e)(e)租(zu)界(jie)的(de)市政(zheng)扶植與(yu)操持(chi)。《漢(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)俄(e)(e)租(zu)界(jie)地(di)公(gong)約》規(gui)定(ding)俄(e)(e)國(guo)領(ling)事(shi)館每一(yi)年四(si)月將(jiang)租(zu)界(jie)應納(na)租(zu)價(jia)共銀83兩(liang)8錢4分2厘交送漢(han)(han)陽縣查收(shou)匯解,俄(e)(e)租(zu)界(jie)統統事(shi)件歸俄(e)(e)領(ling)事(shi)官按照公(gong)約及后定(ding)則(ze)程操持(chi)。

漢口俄租界,從巴公屋子看美國領事館和俄國領事館頂部.jpg

漢(han)口俄(e)租界,從巴公屋(wu)子看(kan)美(mei)國領事(shi)館和俄(e)國領事(shi)館頂部

  俄(e)(e)國(guo)領(ling)事(shi)館(guan)今(jin)位于洞(dong)庭巷子特1號。該修(xiu)建(jian)為混磚布(bu)局(ju),屬(shu)于意(yi)大(da)力把(ba)洛克修(xiu)建(jian)氣概,共兩層,修(xiu)成立(li)體呈扇形,面積(ji)共2819平方米(mi)。1904年(nian),俄(e)(e)領(ling)事(shi)館(guan)擴建(jian),領(ling)事(shi)館(guan)區占空中(zhong)積(ji)十多畝,除領(ling)事(shi)館(guan)外,還另(ling)建(jian)了九幢兩層高(gao)等室第(di)樓(lou)(lou),紅磚凈水墻(qiang),門窗均為高(gao)等木(mu)料。該修(xiu)建(jian)華(hua)麗都麗,座(zuo)落(luo)在金粉(fen)奢華(hua)的俄(e)(e)租(zu)界(jie)內,是列(lie)國(guo)駐漢領(ling)事(shi)館(guan)修(xiu)建(jian)中(zhong)最奢華(hua)的一幢。1917年(nian),俄(e)(e)國(guo)十月反(fan)動發(fa)(fa)生新政權,領(ling)事(shi)館(guan)封閉(bi),1924年(nian)中(zhong)國(guo)發(fa)(fa)出俄(e)(e)租(zu)界(jie),蘇(su)維埃政權成立(li)后,蘇(su)聯駐漢總領(ling)事(shi)館(guan)于1925年(nian)開館(guan)。厥后因為所辦事(shi)件未幾,1927主動閉(bi)館(guan)到1933年(nian)再次(ci)開館(guan),直至1947年(nian),領(ling)事(shi)館(guan)正式閉(bi)館(guan)。加厚后的俄(e)(e)國(guo)領(ling)事(shi)館(guan)大(da)樓(lou)(lou)現為商業用房。

 

最初發出的一塊租借地

  跟著(zhu)漢口開(kai)埠互市,法(fa)國(guo)販子也逐步來漢口遏(e)制商業(ye)。1862年(nian)(nian)(同治元年(nian)(nian))法(fa)國(guo)在(zai)(zai)漢口設(she)立領(ling)事(shi)(shi)館(guan),法(fa)國(guo)當局(ju)顛(dian)末(mo)屢次談判,從中國(guo)當局(ju)取得(de)了(le)(le)英租(zu)(zu)界以下城(cheng)垣(yuan)內(nei)地盤的(de)(de)(de)承租(zu)(zu)權(quan),但還不簽定正式租(zu)(zu)借左券。1856年(nian)(nian),法(fa)國(guo)起(qi)頭建(jian)領(ling)事(shi)(shi)館(guan)大(da)樓(lou),新建(jian)大(da)樓(lou)1891年(nian)(nian)被(bei)大(da)水沖(chong)垮,1892年(nian)(nian)重建(jian)。法(fa)國(guo)在(zai)(zai)最初的(de)(de)(de)這塊租(zu)(zu)借地上著(zhu)名無(wu)實(shi),在(zai)(zai)直到(dao)真(zhen)正簽定公約規定法(fa)租(zu)(zu)界的(de)(de)(de)中間三十多(duo)年(nian)(nian)里,根基上是(shi)一片空(kong)位(wei),法(fa)國(guo)領(ling)事(shi)(shi)館(guan)是(shi)法(fa)國(guo)人在(zai)(zai)這里修建(jian)的(de)(de)(de)獨一、但倒是(shi)最主(zhu)要的(de)(de)(de)修建(jian)。 而在(zai)(zai)領(ling)事(shi)(shi)館(guan)后的(de)(de)(de)大(da)片空(kong)位(wei)上斥地了(le)(le)漢口城(cheng)內(nei)最早(zao)的(de)(de)(de)西商賽馬(ma)場,直到(dao)起(qi)頭正式扶植租(zu)(zu)界才遷徙到(dao)城(cheng)垣(yuan)外(wai)(今(jin)束縛公園一帶)。

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漢口法國(guo)領事館

  1896年(nian)6月(yue)(yue)2日由法國駐上(shang)海的(de)總(zong)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)與江漢(han)關監視翟(zhai)廷韶(shao)簽定《漢(han)口租界(jie)(jie)租約》,肯定法租界(jie)(jie)。為增(zeng)強對(dui)租界(jie)(jie)的(de)操持和扶植(zhi),除領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)外,租界(jie)(jie)內設(she)(she)(she)還設(she)(she)(she)工(gong)部局、巡(xun)捕(bu)房(fang)。按照(zhao)《漢(han)口租界(jie)(jie)租約》的(de)規定,法國領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)間接把握租界(jie)(jie)的(de)行(xing)政(zheng)權(quan)。領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)擔(dan)任(ren)在租界(jie)(jie)內保(bao)持次序和大眾寧(ning)靜,有(you)擔(dan)任(ren)行(xing)政(zheng)任(ren)務的(de)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)和擔(dan)任(ren)法律(lv)任(ren)務的(de)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi),別離(li)處置違背交通律(lv)例和違背巡(xun)捕(bu)房(fang)軌制的(de)相干事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)情。在領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)休假或代庖署理(li)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)不在的(de)環境下,領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)操持租界(jie)(jie)的(de)權(quan)利(li)由領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)代庖署理(li)履行(xing)。領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)按期(qi)(qi)向駐華公使或法外洋(yang)交部報(bao)告請(qing)示租界(jie)(jie)的(de)施政(zheng)環境。巡(xun)捕(bu)房(fang)巡(xun)捕(bu)的(de)錄用、復職(zhi)和撤職(zhi)由領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)擔(dan)任(ren)。另外領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)官每一年(nian)四(si)月(yue)(yue)將租地(di)(di)應(ying)納地(di)(di)丁、漕米(mi)共折錢37兩8錢1分1厘,交送漢(han)陽縣查(cha)收(shou)匯解。日軍(jun)侵犯武漢(han)時(shi)期(qi)(qi),1939年(nian)5月(yue)(yue),為增(zeng)強同日本占有(you)軍(jun)的(de)接洽,法國領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)還特地(di)(di)設(she)(she)(she)立日本科。

  法(fa)國領(ling)事(shi)館是二層(ceng)磚木布局,屬于南(nan)亞殖(zhi)民(min)氣概的(de)西式庭(ting)園修(xiu)建。高低兩(liang)層(ceng),外廊拱券(quan),麻石(shi)墻(qiang)面(mian),方柱門(men)斗(dou),門(men)斗(dou)上(shang)陽臺(tai),紅瓦頂(ding),全(quan)鋪木地(di)(di)(di)板,木制百(bai)葉門(men)窗,樓房周圍建花圃。地(di)(di)(di)點(dian)現(xian)為(wei)漢(han)(han)口(kou)洞庭(ting)街81號。二戰后日本降服佩服,中國才正式接收了漢(han)(han)口(kou)法(fa)租(zu)界的(de)操持權,漢(han)(han)口(kou)法(fa)租(zu)界是中國最初發出(chu)的(de)一塊租(zu)借地(di)(di)(di)。在(zai)這塊出(chu)格之地(di)(di)(di)上(shang),法(fa)國領(ling)事(shi)館從1862年開館直到1950年閉館,中間(jian)不曾閉館,在(zai)漢(han)(han)時候長達88年。1950年-2013年間(jian)作(zuo)為(wei)武漢(han)(han)市當局構造室第。

 

因侵華戰斗被炸毀過兩次的領事館

  在浩繁的(de)駐(zhu)(zhu)漢(han)領(ling)(ling)事館(guan)中,運氣(qi)最為曲折的(de)應這(zhe)天本駐(zhu)(zhu)漢(han)領(ling)(ling)事館(guan)。因為中日干系和抗(kang)日戰(zhan)斗的(de)情勢成(cheng)長(chang),日本駐(zhu)(zhu)漢(han)領(ling)(ling)事館(guan)屢(lv)次(ci)閉(bi)館(guan)、復館(guan);地點幾經搬遷(qian);館(guan)舍修建也曾兩次(ci)被烽火(huo)炸(zha)毀。日本極為覬覦(yu)武(wu)漢(han)在中國的(de)經濟中間(jian)位置,不時向漢(han)口周全滲(shen)入。1885年12月,日本駐(zhu)(zhu)漢(han)口領(ling)(ling)事館(guan)正式開館(guan)。

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日身手(shou)事館,1938年武漢淪亡前(qian)夜被中國戎行(xing)炸毀

  領事(shi)除擔(dan)任對本國談(tan)判,擴展權勢,租界(jie)內(nei)統(tong)統(tong)途徑、船埠、水(shui)溝的(de)(de)(de)(de)修建及(ji)(ji)稽(ji)察(cha)空中(zhong)(zhong)、地盤(pan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)出(chu)租、衡宇(yu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)制(zhi)作(zuo),掩(yan)護日商好(hao)處,向(xiang)中(zhong)(zhong)國官府繳(jiao)征稅(shui)費及(ji)(ji)其余大眾事(shi)件外;對界(jie)內(nei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)行政事(shi)件也有(you)多方面的(de)(de)(de)(de)監視權:居留民會推舉的(de)(de)(de)(de)議(yi)員須(xu)經領事(shi)承(cheng)認(ren)。居留民團(tuan)團(tuan)長助役雖由居留民團(tuan)長保(bao)舉,但須(xu)獲得(de)(de)領事(shi)及(ji)(ji)駐華(hua)公使的(de)(de)(de)(de)承(cheng)認(ren)。民團(tuan)管帳主(zhu)任雖由民團(tuan)參(can)事(shi)會保(bao)舉,但也須(xu)獲得(de)(de)領事(shi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)承(cheng)認(ren)。

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原址重建的(de)日(ri)身手(shou)事館,現匯申(shen)大旅店

  因為(wei)外(wai)僑(qiao)人數較少,營業未(wei)幾,1891年(nian)(nian)4月(yue)(yue)(yue)(yue)1日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri),日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)本(ben)外(wai)務省(sheng)限令漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)口領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)閉館(guan),同(tong)(tong)年(nian)(nian)9月(yue)(yue)(yue)(yue)28日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)本(ben)駐(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)閉館(guan),其(qi)平常(chang)事(shi)(shi)(shi)件由上海(hai)日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)身手(shou)事(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)代(dai)管。1898年(nian)(nian)7月(yue)(yue)(yue)(yue)16日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri),中(zhong)(zhong)日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)簽(qian)定《漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)口日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)本(ben)專(zhuan)管租(zu)界(jie)(jie)條目(mu)》,規定日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)租(zu)界(jie)(jie),為(wei)增強對租(zu)界(jie)(jie)的(de)(de)操持(chi),同(tong)(tong)年(nian)(nian)8月(yue)(yue)(yue)(yue)7日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri),日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)本(ben)駐(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)重(zhong)開(kai)。1909年(nian)(nian)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)口日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)身手(shou)事(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)升為(wei)總(zong)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)。1937年(nian)(nian)盧溝橋事(shi)(shi)(shi)情,中(zhong)(zhong)日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)戰斗周全迸發后(hou),總(zong)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)封(feng)閉,在武(wu)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)淪(lun)(lun)亡前被中(zhong)(zhong)國(guo)戎行(xing)轟毀(hui)。1938年(nian)(nian)8月(yue)(yue)(yue)(yue)13日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri),中(zhong)(zhong)國(guo)當局發出漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)口日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)租(zu)界(jie)(jie),同(tong)(tong)年(nian)(nian)10月(yue)(yue)(yue)(yue)25日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri),武(wu)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)淪(lun)(lun)亡,規復(fu)日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)租(zu)界(jie)(jie),日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)本(ben)駐(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)總(zong)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)重(zhong)開(kai)。1945年(nian)(nian),中(zhong)(zhong)國(guo)抗克服利(li),日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)本(ben)降(jiang)服佩(pei)服,日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)本(ben)駐(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)總(zong)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)正式(shi)閉館(guan)。日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)本(ben)駐(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)地點幾經(jing)變(bian)革,1903年(nian)(nian)設(she)(she)在車站路一(yi)帶。20世紀20-30年(nian)(nian)月(yue)(yue)(yue)(yue)位于(yu)日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)租(zu)界(jie)(jie)河街(jie),1938年(nian)(nian)重(zhong)開(kai)的(de)(de)總(zong)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)曾占有交通(tong)銀行(xing)大(da)樓(lou)(lou)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)口市成功街(jie)2號辦公過;后(hou)又設(she)(she)在今沿(yan)江(jiang)(jiang)小(xiao)道(dao)。日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)本(ben)駐(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)館(guan)舍是(shi)(shi)1913年(nian)(nian)制作,武(wu)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)(han)淪(lun)(lun)亡時被炸毀(hui),二十(shi)世紀四十(shi)年(nian)(nian)月(yue)(yue)(yue)(yue)重(zhong)建,1944年(nian)(nian)冬再遭空軍轟炸,今衡宇是(shi)(shi)抗戰時期被中(zhong)(zhong)國(guo)軍民炸毀(hui)后(hou)從(cong)頭制作的(de)(de),現為(wei)匯申(shen)大(da)旅店。日(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)(ri)身手(shou)事(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)修(xiu)建是(shi)(shi)鋼筋混土壤(rang)布局,屬于(yu)西方古典主義殖民氣概(gai)。分兩局部修(xiu)建體(ti),曲面樓(lou)(lou)和(he)凸凹樓(lou)(lou)體(ti),此種設(she)(she)想從(cong)視覺上增強了修(xiu)建物的(de)(de)動(dong)感;頂上大(da)坡(po)瓦,高(gao)(gao)低(di)三層券廊,有面臨長江(jiang)(jiang)的(de)(de)五(wu)層高(gao)(gao)鐘樓(lou)(lou)和(he)四層高(gao)(gao)鐘樓(lou)(lou),鐘樓(lou)(lou)和(he)眺望塔(ta)并列,正劈面長江(jiang)(jiang)一(yi)覽(lan)眼底。

 

市當局大院中的領事館

  有一(yi)幢(chuang)由(you)本(ben)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)人制作(zuo)(zuo),今座落(luo)在(zai)(zai)武漢(han)(han)(han)市國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)民(min)當(dang)(dang)(dang)局(ju)(ju)(ju)大院內,為(wei)(wei)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)民(min)當(dang)(dang)(dang)局(ju)(ju)(ju)辦公(gong)廳用房;曾插著本(ben)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)旗,現在(zai)(zai)五星(xing)紅旗在(zai)(zai)樓頂(ding)頂(ding)風飄(piao)展(zhan)的修(xiu)建(jian),該修(xiu)建(jian)便是德(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)駐(zhu)(zhu)漢(han)(han)(han)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)館(guan)。漢(han)(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)開(kai)埠(bu)初期,德(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)因(yin)為(wei)(wei)在(zai)(zai)漢(han)(han)(han)做生(sheng)意及(ji)(ji)常住漢(han)(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)的德(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)人甚少,未(wei)設(she)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)館(guan)。從(cong)1883年(nian)起頭,其在(zai)(zai)漢(han)(han)(han)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)營(ying)業及(ji)(ji)外僑事(shi)(shi)件(jian)交(jiao)由(you)英國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)代管,直到1888年(nian),德(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)在(zai)(zai)漢(han)(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)設(she)立(li)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)館(guan)。到1895年(nian)10月(yue)(yue)3日清當(dang)(dang)(dang)局(ju)(ju)(ju)自愿與(yu)德(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)駐(zhu)(zhu)上海領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)在(zai)(zai)漢(han)(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)簽定(ding)《中德(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)漢(han)(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)租界公(gong)約》,德(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)在(zai)(zai)中國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)斥(chi)地了第一(yi)塊租界,德(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)在(zai)(zai)漢(han)(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)事(shi)(shi)件(jian)不時增(zeng)添,同年(nian)德(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)館(guan)大樓斥(chi)地制作(zuo)(zuo)。1917年(nian)3月(yue)(yue)14日,中國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)頒布發表與(yu)德(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)正式決絕,發出漢(han)(han)(han)口(kou)(kou)德(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)租界和天津德(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)租界,德(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)駐(zhu)(zhu)漢(han)(han)(han)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)館(guan)自愿封(feng)閉。跟著1921年(nian)《中德(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)協約》的簽定(ding),中德(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)干(gan)系規(gui)復并逐步改(gai)良;1925年(nian),中國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)當(dang)(dang)(dang)局(ju)(ju)(ju)德(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)當(dang)(dang)(dang)局(ju)(ju)(ju)干(gan)系進一(yi)步緊密親(qin)密,同年(nian)德(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)駐(zhu)(zhu)漢(han)(han)(han)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)館(guan)又從(cong)頭開(kai)館(guan)。到1945年(nian),中國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)抗克(ke)服利,德(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)駐(zhu)(zhu)漢(han)(han)(han)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)館(guan)正式封(feng)閉。

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清末漢口德國領事館(guan)

  德國(guo)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)官(guan)與(yu)其(qi)余國(guo)度駐漢領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)官(guan)近似的(de)(de)(de)職責在:每(mei)一(yi)年4月(yue)將德租界(jie)內(nei)(nei)應繳納的(de)(de)(de)地丁、漕米銀兩送交(jiao)漢陽(yang)縣(xian)查收匯解;租界(jie)內(nei)(nei)的(de)(de)(de)地盤租借、廉(lian)價、租界(jie)規模的(de)(de)(de)擴展由領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)官(guan)擔任和中(zhong)國(guo)方面談判;租界(jie)統(tong)統(tong)事(shi)(shi)件,歸(gui)德國(guo)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)官(guan)按(an)照此約及后定則程操持。其(qi)差別職責在于:德國(guo)領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)普通不干與(yu)干與(yu)租界(jie)內(nei)(nei)的(de)(de)(de)平常行政,僅(jin)僅(jin)起(qi)到監視感化。

  德國駐漢領事館館址現位于沿(yan)江小道188號(hao)。它屬于殖(zhi)民地修(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)建(jian)(jian),兩(liang)層(ceng)磚(zhuan)木正(zheng)(zheng)方體(ti)布局,接(jie)(jie)納高低(di)兩(liang)層(ceng)券廊(lang)處置(zhi),黃色拉毛外墻,紅瓦坡(po)屋(wu)面(mian)。主(zhu)進口設(she)在(zai)正(zheng)(zheng)中,有門斗凸出,正(zheng)(zheng)面(mian)用條石(shi)砌筑臺階,雙方做坡(po)道可間接(jie)(jie)駛進汽(qi)車。屋(wu)頂(ding)四角(jiao)各(ge)建(jian)(jian)有一(yi)個(ge)小圓尖塔(ta)及屋(wu)檐正(zheng)(zheng)中建(jian)(jian)小型塔(ta)樓(lou)。塔(ta)樓(lou)四側(ce)開半圓形天窗,既知(zhi)足(zu)了(le)室內(nei)采光請求(qiu),又豐碩了(le)修(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)成立面(mian)。塔(ta)樓(lou)上原有一(yi)座鎦金鷹(ying)鳥(1916年撤除)。這類集(ji)敞廊(lang)和角(jiao)塔(ta)與一(yi)身,別具氣概(gai)的(de)修(xiu)(xiu)(xiu)建(jian)(jian)在(zai)那時稱作“德國式(shi)巴洛克氣概(gai)”。

 

本國領事館對武漢初期古代化的影響

  除英、俄、德(de)、日、法(fa)五國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)駐(zhu)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)(guan)設于本國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)租(zu)(zu)(zu)界(jie)內,其余國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)度不(bu)在(zai)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)口(kou)成(cheng)(cheng)立租(zu)(zu)(zu)界(jie),但也(ye)設立了(le)(le)領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)(guan),頗具特點的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)另(ling)(ling)有(you)美國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)(guan)、瑞典領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)(guan)等,也(ye)值(zhi)得去(qu)研討摸索。浩繁駐(zhu)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)(guan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)(cheng)立,對漢(han)(han)(han)(han)口(kou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影(ying)響(xiang)龐(pang)大(da)(da),既帶來了(le)(le)傷痛,也(ye)對其成(cheng)(cheng)長(chang)有(you)主(zhu)動(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)鞭策感化。一(yi)(yi)方(fang)(fang)面,在(zai)掉(diao)隊挨打(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)背景下,本國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)駐(zhu)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)(guan)作為一(yi)(yi)種侵犯朋分好處的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)東西,領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)按照各(ge)類不(bu)同(tong)等公(gong)約(yue)干與(yu)(yu)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)際主(zhu)權、對漢(han)(han)(han)(han)口(kou)政治、經(jing)濟遏制打(da)劫及軍事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)入侵,如在(zai)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)口(kou)創辦各(ge)類工(gong)場、洋行等遏制商品推銷和本錢打(da)劫;列(lie)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)在(zai)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)口(kou)從未遏制過與(yu)(yu)湖(hu)北處所當(dang)局調(diao)停,不(bu)時以廉價擴展租(zu)(zu)(zu)界(jie)規模;在(zai)租(zu)(zu)(zu)界(jie)內成(cheng)(cheng)立工(gong)部(bu)局、巡捕房等,利用自力于中(zhong)(zhong)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)主(zhu)權統領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)行政法(fa)律(lv)權,呈(cheng)現了(le)(le)“國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)中(zhong)(zhong)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)”。另(ling)(ling)外(wai)(wai)(wai)一(yi)(yi)方(fang)(fang)面,本國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)(guan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)(cheng)立鞭策了(le)(le)武(wu)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)近代化的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)歷程(cheng),也(ye)增(zeng)添了(le)(le)武(wu)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)與(yu)(yu)天下的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)接(jie)洽。起(qi)首,來漢(han)(han)(han)(han)收(shou)支口(kou)商業(ye)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)本錢愈來愈多,外(wai)(wai)(wai)商來漢(han)(han)(han)(han)創辦工(gong)場,呈(cheng)現了(le)(le)更(geng)多本國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)商品和前(qian)進前(qian)輩(bei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)手藝、理念,客觀上動(dong)員(yuan)了(le)(le)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)口(kou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)初期本錢主(zhu)義和民族(zu)產業(ye)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)(cheng)長(chang)。漢(han)(han)(han)(han)口(kou)在(zai)短短二十幾(ji)年(nian)內,完(wan)成(cheng)(cheng)了(le)(le)由傳統內聚型國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)際商業(ye)重鎮(zhen)改變為內向型的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)中(zhong)(zhong)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)四(si)大(da)(da)商埠(bu)之(zhi)一(yi)(yi)和本地最大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)際商業(ye)都會,被稱為“西方(fang)(fang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)芝加(jia)哥”。其次,租(zu)(zu)(zu)界(jie)在(zai)列(lie)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)(guan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)操持下,都會計劃、市(shi)(shi)政扶植、交通(tong)收(shou)集、醫療衛生都比租(zu)(zu)(zu)界(jie)外(wai)(wai)(wai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)口(kou)前(qian)進前(qian)輩(bei)良(liang)多,租(zu)(zu)(zu)界(jie)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)(cheng)長(chang)成(cheng)(cheng)了(le)(le)那(nei)時都會成(cheng)(cheng)長(chang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)典型。再次,公(gong)眾的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)糊口(kou)體例也(ye)逐(zhu)步古代化。如1901年(nian)德(de)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)西門子洋行在(zai)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)口(kou)租(zu)(zu)(zu)界(jie)內創辦市(shi)(shi)內德(de)律(lv)風,漢(han)(han)(han)(han)口(kou)古代通(tong)信奇(qi)跡起(qi)頭(tou)鼓起(qi);1903年(nian)英國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)駐(zhu)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)(guan)中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)將(jiang)第(di)一(yi)(yi)輛(liang)小(xiao)轎車開上陌頭(tou);1906年(nian)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)口(kou)第(di)一(yi)(yi)盞電燈在(zai)英國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)駐(zhu)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)(guan)中(zhong)(zhong)點亮;法(fa)租(zu)(zu)(zu)界(jie)內的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)片子院、漢(han)(han)(han)(han)口(kou)西商賽馬場等古代文娛場合的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)呈(cheng)現都讓那(nei)時的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)口(kou)人大(da)(da)開眼(yan)界(jie)。另(ling)(ling)外(wai)(wai)(wai),列(lie)國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)(guan)修(xiu)(xiu)建氣概多樣,本國(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)修(xiu)(xiu)建進入,使(shi)武(wu)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)都會修(xiu)(xiu)建向近代修(xiu)(xiu)建邁(mai)進了(le)(le)新里程(cheng)。駐(zhu)漢(han)(han)(han)(han)領(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)(guan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)開館(guan)(guan)(guan)閉館(guan)(guan)(guan)也(ye)見證了(le)(le)中(zhong)(zhong)外(wai)(wai)(wai)干系(xi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)奧妙變更(geng),是研討中(zhong)(zhong)外(wai)(wai)(wai)干系(xi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一(yi)(yi)個主(zhu)要視(shi)角。

漢口美國領事館.jpg

  漢口美(mei)國領事館

  漢(han)(han)口(kou)舊領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan),見證時期成(cheng)長(chang),標記汗青(qing)變化,已成(cheng)為武(wu)(wu)(wu)漢(han)(han)的(de)獨占都(dou)會明(ming)信(xin)片。武(wu)(wu)(wu)漢(han)(han)市當局部(bu)分和(he)官方構造都(dou)在以各類情勢保留和(he)掩(yan)護(hu)著這些名貴(gui)的(de)文明(ming)修(xiu)(xiu)建。1993年,武(wu)(wu)(wu)漢(han)(han)市第一(yi)批(pi)(pi)優異(yi)(yi)汗青(qing)修(xiu)(xiu)建發布,俄國領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)被(bei)參加(jia)一(yi)級(ji)掩(yan)護(hu)名單(dan)(dan)(dan)中,法(fa)國領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)和(he)日(ri)身手事(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)被(bei)參加(jia)二級(ji)掩(yan)護(hu)名單(dan)(dan)(dan)中。2010年,武(wu)(wu)(wu)漢(han)(han)市第五(wu)批(pi)(pi)優異(yi)(yi)汗青(qing)修(xiu)(xiu)建中,美國領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)、德國領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)被(bei)參加(jia)現存一(yi)級(ji)優異(yi)(yi)汗青(qing)掩(yan)護(hu)修(xiu)(xiu)建。2012年,武(wu)(wu)(wu)漢(han)(han)市將英國領(ling)(ling)(ling)事(shi)(shi)(shi)館(guan)(guan)官邸原址參加(jia)“優異(yi)(yi)汗青(qing)修(xiu)(xiu)建”名單(dan)(dan)(dan),掛(gua)牌(pai)遏(e)制(zhi)掩(yan)護(hu)。

  (作(zuo)者:宋曉丹(dan)、孫丹(dan))

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